In diagnosis, it is used to create an image of internal body structures such as tendonsmusclesjoints, blood vessels, and internal organs, to measure some characteristics e. Its aim is usually to find a source of disease or to exclude pathology.
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The usage of ultrasound to produce visual images for medicine is called medical ultrasonography or simply sonography. The practice of examining pregnant women using prostata normale größe is called obstetric ultrasonographyand was an early development of clinical ultrasonography. The ultrasound pulses echo off tissues with different reflection properties and are returned to the probe which records and displays them as an image.
Many different types of images can be formed. The most common is a B-mode image Brightnesswhich displays the acoustic impedance of a two-dimensional cross-section of tissue. Other types display blood flowmotion of tissue over time, the location of blood, the presence of specific molecules, the stiffness of tissueor the anatomy of a three-dimensional region. Compared to other medical imaging modalities, ultrasound has several advantages.
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It provides images in real-time, is portableand can consequently be brought to the bedside. It is substantially lower in cost than other imaging strategies and does not use harmful ionizing radiation.
An ultrasound prostate cancer treatment wiki on fetal biometry printed on a piece of paper. Sonography ultrasonography is widely used in medicine. It is possible to perform both diagnosis and therapeutic proceduresusing ultrasound to guide interventional procedures such as biopsies or to drain collections of fluid, which can be both diagnostic and therapeutic.
Sonographers are medical professionals who perform scans which are traditionally interpreted by radiologists, physicians who specialize in the application and interpretation of medical imaging modalities, or by cardiologists in the case of cardiac ultrasonography echocardiography.
Increasingly, physicians and other healthcare professionals who provide direct patient care are using ultrasound in office and hospital practice point-of-care ultrasound. Superficial structures such as muscletendontestisbreastthyroid and parathyroid glands, and the neonatal brain are imaged at higher számolási prosztatitis okok 7—18 MHzwhich provide better linear axial and horizontal lateral resolution.
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Deeper prostate cancer treatment wiki such as liver and kidney are imaged at lower frequencies 1—6 MHz with lower axial and lateral resolution as a price of deeper tissue penetration. A general-purpose ultrasound transducer may be used for most imaging purposes but some situations may require the use of a specialized transducer.
Most ultrasound examination is done using a transducer on the surface of the body, but improved visualization is often possible if a transducer can be placed inside the body. Prostate cancer treatment wiki this purpose, special-use transducers, including endovaginal, endorectal, and transesophageal transducers are commonly employed.
At the extreme, very small transducers can be mounted on small diameter catheters and placed within blood vessels to image the walls and disease of those vessels. Anesthesiology In anesthesiologyultrasound is commonly used to guide the placement of needles when injecting local anaesthetic solutions in the proximity of nerves identified within the ultrasound image nerve block.
It is also used for vascular access such as cannulation of large central veins and for difficult arterial cannulation. Transcranial Doppler is frequently used by neuro-anesthesiologists for obtaining information about flow-velocity in the basal cerebral vessels.
Angiology vascular Intravascular ultrasound image of a coronary artery leftwith color-coding on the right, delineating the lumen yellowexternal elastic membrane blue and the atherosclerotic plaque burden green Further information: Doppler ultrasonography and Intravascular ultrasound In angiology or vascular medicine, duplex ultrasound B Mode imaging combined with Doppler flow measurement is used to diagnose arterial and venous disease.
This is particularly important in potential neurologic problemswhere carotid ultrasound is commonly used for assessing blood flow and potential or suspected stenoses in the carotid arterieswhile transcranial Doppler is used for imaging flow in the intracerebral arteries.
Intravascular ultrasound IVUS uses a specially designed catheter with a miniaturized ultrasound probe attached to its distal end, which is then threaded inside a blood vessel. The proximal end of the catheter is attached to computerized ultrasound equipment and allows the application of ultrasound technology, such as a piezoelectric transducer or capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducerto visualize the endothelium of blood vessels in living individuals.
Cardiology heart Main article: Echocardiography Ultrasound of human heart showing the four chambers and mitral and tricuspid valves.
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Echocardiography is an essential tool in cardiologyassisting in evaluation of heart valve function, such as stenosis or insufficiencystrength of cardiac muscle contraction, and hypertrophy or dilatation of the main chambers. Other uses include assisting with differentiating causes of abdominal pain such as gallstones and kidney stones.
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Emergency Medicine Residency Programs have a substantial history of promoting the use of bedside ultrasound during physician training. In abdominal sonography, the major organs of the abdomen such as the pancreasaortainferior vena cavalivergall bladderbile ductskidneysand spleen may be imaged.
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- Chemotherapy in the general sense is a healing process in which a group of disease-causing microorganisms or prostate cancer treatment wiki can be killed by introducing chemicals into the body.
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However, sound waves may be blocked by gas in the bowel and attenuated to differing degrees by fat, sometimes limiting diagnostic capabilities. The appendix can sometimes be seen when inflamed e. Endoanal ultrasound is used particularly in the investigation of anorectal symptoms such as fecal incontinence or obstructed defecation. Ultrasonography of liver tumors allows for both detection and characterization. It uses transducers designed for approaches through the prostate cancer treatment wiki abdominal wall, curvilinear and sector, and specialty transducers such as endovaginal.
Obstetrical sonography was originally developed in the late s and s by Sir Ian Donald   and is commonly used during pregnancy to check the development and presentation of the fetus.
It is currently believed that the risk of delayed diagnosis is greater than the small risk, if any, associated with undergoing an ultrasound scan.
However, its use for non-medical purposes such as fetal "keepsake" videos and photos is discouraged. Assess fetal growth prostate cancer treatment wiki evidence of intrauterine growth restriction IUGR Check for fetal movement and heartbeat.
Determine the sex of the baby According to prostate cancer treatment wiki European Committee of Medical Ultrasound Safety ECMUS  Ultrasonic examinations should only be performed by prostate cancer treatment wiki personnel who are trained and updated in safety matters. Ultrasound produces heating, pressure changes and mechanical disturbances in tissue. Biological effects prostate cancer treatment wiki non-thermal origin have been reported in animals but, to date, no such effects have been demonstrated in humans, except when a micro-bubble contrast agent is present.
Nonetheless, care should be taken to use low power settings and avoid pulsed wave scanning of the fetal brain unless specifically indicated in high risk pregnancies.
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Hemodynamics blood circulation Blood velocity can be measured in various blood vessels, such as middle cerebral artery or descending aortaby relatively inexpensive and low risk ultrasound Doppler probes attached to portable monitors. Otolaryngology head and neck Neck ultrasound. Most structures of a prosztatilén prosztatitis kezelése prostate cancer treatment wiki, including the thyroid and parathyroid glands lymph nodesand salivary glandsare well-visualized by high-frequency ultrasound with exceptional anatomic detail.
Ultrasound is the preferred imaging modality for thyroid tumors and lesions, and its use is important in the evaluation, preoperative planning, and postoperative surveillance of patients with thyroid cancer. Many other benign and malignant conditions in the head and neck can prostate cancer treatment wiki differentiated, evaluated, and managed with the help of diagnostic ultrasound and ultrasound-guided procedures. Neonatology In neonatologytranscranial Doppler can be used for basic assessment of intracerebral structural abnormalities, suspected hemorrhage, ventriculomegaly or hydrocephalus and anoxic insults Periventricular leukomalacia.
It can be performed through the soft spots in the skull of a newborn infant Fontanelle until these completely close at about 1 year of age by which time they have formed a virtually impenetrable acoustic barrier to ultrasound.
The smaller the fontanelle, the more the image is compromised. Ophthalmology eyes In ophthalmology and optometrythere are two major forms of eye exam using ultrasound: A-scan ultrasound biometryis commonly referred to as an A-scan Amplitude scan. A-mode provides data on the length of the eyewhich is a major determinant in common sight disordersespecially for determining the power of an intraocular lens after cataract extraction.
B-scan ultrasonography, or B-scan, is a B-mode scan that produces a cross-sectional view of the eye and the orbit. Its use in the emergency department for the timely diagnosis of conditions such as retinal or vitreous detachment,  retinal and vitreous hemorrhages, and intra-ocular foreign bodies  is common and important.
Pulmonology lungs Ultrasound is used to assess the lungs in a variety of settings including critical care, emergency medicine, trauma surgery, as well as general medicine.
This imaging modality is used at the bedside or examination table to evaluate a number of different lung abnormalities as well as to guide procedures such as thoracentesisdrainage of pleural fluid effusionneedle aspiration biopsy, and catheter placement.
These two surfaces are typically pushed together and make up the pleural line, which is the basis of lung or pleural ultrasound. This line is visible less than a centimeter below the rib line in most adults. On ultrasound, it is visualized as a hyperechoic bright white horizontal line if the ultrasound probe is applied perpendicularly to the skin.
Artifacts: Lung ultrasound relies on artifacts, which would otherwise be considered a hindrance in imaging.
Air blocks the ultrasound beam and thus visualizing healthy lung tissue itself with this mode of imaging is not practical. Consequently, physicians and prostate cancer treatment wiki have learned to recognize patterns that ultrasound beams create when imaging healthy versus diseased lung tissue.